A concise evolving definition for Information Technology (IT) or enterprise networking comes from, http://www.techweb.com/encyclopedia/, and it is shown below. A more extensive definition may be found here, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_technology . See also, Web site http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_site , Web portal http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portals , Web service http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_service and Internet history, http://www.computerhistory.org/exhibits/internet_history/ .
The networking infrastructure in a large enterprise with multiple computer systems and networks of different types is extraordinarily complex. Due to the myriad of interfaces that are required, much of what goes on has little to do with the real data processing of the payroll and orders. An enormous amount of effort goes into planning the integration of disparate networks and systems and managing them, and, planning again for yet more interfaces as marketing pressures force vendors to develop new techniques that routinely change the ground rules.
Application Development And Configuration Management
There are a large number of programming languages and development tools
for writing today's applications. Each development system has its own visual
programming interface for building GUI front ends and its own
fourth-generation language (4GLs) for doing the business logic. Programmers
are always learning new languages to meet the next generation.
Like all software, a database management system (DBMS) must support the
hardware platform and operating system it runs in. In order to move a DBMS
to another platform, a version must be available for the new hardware and
operating system. The common database language between client and server is
SQL, but each DBMS vendor implements its own rendition of SQL, requiring a
special SQL interface to most every DBMS.
Operating Systems/Network Operating Systems
Operating systems are the master control programs that run the computer
system. Single-user operating systems, such as Windows and Mac, are used in
the clients, and multiuser network operating systems, such as Windows
NT/2000, Unix and NetWare, are used in the servers. Windows is the clear
winner on the desktop, but Windows 2000 and Unix compete with each other for
the server side.
Communications protocols determine the format and rules for how the transmitted data are framed and managed from the sending station to the receiving station. Exchanging data and messages between PCs, Macs, mainframes and Unix servers used to mean designing networks for a multiprotocol environment. Today, most enterprises have migrated their proprietary protocols (IBM's SNA, Apple's AppleTalk, Novell's IPX/SPX, Microsoft's NetBEUI) to the Unix-based TCP/IP protocol, which is the transport of the Internet.
Transmission from station to station within a LAN is performed by the LAN
access method, or data link protocol, which is typically Ethernet. As
traffic expands within an organization, higher bandwidth is required,
causing organizations to plan for faster Ethernet connections (from 100 Mbps
to 1,000 Mbps to 10,000 Mbps).
Transmitting data to remote locations requires the use of private lines
or public switched services offered by local and long distance carriers and
Internet providers. Connections can be as simple as dialing up via modem or
by leasing private lines, such as T1 and T3. Switched 56, frame relay, ISDN,
SMDS and ATM offer a variety of switched services in which you pay for the
digital traffic you use. With Internet access, you typically pay a fixed
amount per month based on the total bandwidth of the connection.
Network management is the monitoring and control of LANs and WANs from a central management console. It requires network management software, such as IBM's NetView and HP's OpenView. The Internet's SNMP has become the de facto standard management protocol, but there are many network management programs and options. For example, there are more than 30 third-party add-ons for HP's popular OpenView software.
Systems and Storage Management
Systems management includes a variety of functions for managing computers
in a networked environment, including software distribution, version
control, backup & recovery, printer spooling, job scheduling, virus
protection and performance and capacity planning. Network management may
also fall under the systems management umbrella.
Electronic mail uses a store and forward system so that it can be safely kept in a "mailbox" until it is retrieved. Most earlier proprietary mail systems have given way to Internet mail protocols; however, some still remain within the enterprise. No matter which mail system is used, keeping the network safe from e-mail viruses via attachments and other methods is an ongoing challenge.
The Internet and Intranets
As if everything mentioned above isn't enough to keep the technical staff busy, the World Wide Web came along in the mid 1990s with the force of a tornado, and nothing in the IT world would ever be the same. Now the Internet sets many of the standards, and the browser has become an interface for accessing just about everything. Every component of system software from operating system to database management system, as well as every application on the market, was revamped in some manner to be Internet compliant. Today, almost every new application deals with the Internet in some manner.
In Summary...Happy Computing!"